Friday, November 16, 2018

Do you take the time to breakfast?

by Kathleen Alleaume

You've heard it before and you’ll hear it again: breakfast is the most important meal of the day – and it’s good to see that message is really sinking in.

A new study of Australian breakfast habits showed that just over 80 per cent (81%) eat breakfast every day. Very few respondents (3%) never ate breakfast, but of those who did (1), the main reason being that they were not hungry in the morning

Why is breakfast important?
Breakfast is important for several reasons. Eating a meal in the morning provides necessary fuel for your body and brain. It can also help stabilise blood sugar and insulin levels, which in turn regulates appetite, meaning we are less likely to be hungry and mindlessly snack throughout the day. For children, eating breakfast has been positively associated with brain function, cognition and academic achievement (2).

So what makes a nutritious breakfast?
For the most nutritious start to the day, aim to choose foods from each of the five food groups: fruits and/or vegetables, whole grains, protein foods and dairy. The first step is to choose quality carbohydrates, such as whole grains (e.g. rolled oats, buckwheat, quinoa), whole grain breads, high fibre breakfast biscuits, whole fruits and vegetables. These foods dish up a healthy dose of fibre to keep hunger at bay help and aid digestion and provide longer lasting fuel. 

Step two, combine your carbs with a serve of protein from foods like yoghurt, eggs, nuts and seeds or legumes. These foods help to promote satiety (feeling full) and ease blood sugar fluctuations, and also contain other nutrients like calcium and heart healthy fats. 

The final step is to choose a variety of fruit or vegetables for added fibre, antioxidants, as well a small amount of healthy fats, such avocado.

Get your day off to a great start with these nutritious breakfast ideas!

  • High fibre smoothie; use a combination of fruit or vegetables with milk or yoghurt, rolled oats and nut butters
  • Boiled eggs with whole grain toast
  • Porridge or cooked quinoa parfait with yoghurt and fruit
  • Slice of whole grain toast with baked beans and spinach and/or mushrooms
  • Whole grain toast with smashed avocado and feta and a sprinkle of lupin flakes
  • High fibre breakfast biscuit with milk and banana
  • Buckwheat or lentil pancakes with fresh fruit and ricotta cheese

Or for more inspiration, take a look at GLNCs delicious breakfast recipes here.

Kathleen Alleaume is a nutrition and exercise scientist who is passionate about making sense of the conflicting health buzz.


  1. Grains & Legumes Nutrition Council. 2018. Do you take the time to break-fast? Australian Breakfast Survey. Unpublished.
  2. Hoyland A, Dye L, Lawton CL. A systematic review of the effect of breakfast on the cognitive performance of children and adolescents. Nutrition Research Reviews 2009; 22: 220-243.

Monday, October 8, 2018

Got mylk? Our new audit shines light on the growing plant-based milk category

The trend for plant-based foods is bigger than ever, with vegan, vegetarian and flexitarian diets all gaining popularity alongside the increasing importance of a sustainable food future. One category that’s seeing record growth is plant-based milk - with the global plant-based milk market expected to surpass $16bn later this year. Traditionally occupying the top spot in non-dairy milks, soy is now facing increasing competition from a number of other nut, grain and legume milks. So what’s new in the Australian milk category? 

Our new audit has revealed category growth of a staggering 58% in number of products in the last two years, but Australians buying plant-based ‘mylks’ should be aware that not all products are nutritionally equal.

We captured 112 products on shelf in the four major supermarkets, including nut milks, grain milks (oat, rice), legume milks (soy, pea), coconut milks and mixes, whilst also reviewing all on-pack nutrition information.

Since our last plant-based milk audit in 2016, the number of coconut milk products has more than doubled with 220% growth, nut milks have increased by 90% and even the well-established legume milk category has grown by 36%. But compared to dairy milk, the Grains & Legumes Nutrition Council’s Nutrition Manager Felicity Curtain said some plant-based milks don’t stack up nutritionally, with many falling short on valuable calcium and protein.

“30% of products did not mention calcium on-pack, suggesting they weren’t fortified with the important mineral. While those that were fortified had consistent amounts, it highlights the importance of checking labels to be confident in the choice you’re making.”

According to Accredited Practising Dietitian Joel Feren, achieving equivalence in terms of calcium content should be a focus for industry.

“Encouraging dairy alternatives to include calcium makes sense to consumers, who expect it to be in a product that is replacing calcium-rich cow’s milk”.

When it came to protein, legume milks like soy were the only plant-based milk that were consistently comparable to dairy milk, with around 3g protein per 100ml – up to three times more than that found in nut, grain and coconut milks.

Few Australians fall short on protein however, so it’s possible to enjoy a variety of plant-based milks as part of a healthy, balanced diet.

“Having so many options is great for those avoiding dairy milks but knowing what to look for is key to making a healthy choice and for plant-based milks, that’s generally calcium and protein.”

With so much choice in plant-based milks, it can be difficult knowing what to look for if you need to avoid dairy. So check out our tips for choosing the best plant-based milk for you…
  • If you need to replace dairy milk, then look out for products fortified with calcium and protein on pack.  
  • Aim for at least 200mg of calcium per serve and at least 5g of protein per serve.
  • Choose mostly non-flavoured milk alternatives to reduce intake of free sugars from beverages. 
We run rolling audits of a range of grain and legume foods on shelf in the four major Australian supermarkets (Coles, Woolworths, IGA, ALDI), revisiting major categories biennially - for more details visit our website here. Stay tuned for the results of our next audit on Breakfast Cereals!

Thursday, September 20, 2018

Enjoying legumes on a low FODMAP diet

by Chloe McLeod

Enjoying legumes on a low FODMAP diet can be a challenge, but the good news is that it is possible! But firstly, what are FODMAPs?

FODMAP stands for Fermentable Oligosaccharides, Disaccharides, Monosaccharides and Polyols, which are all different types of carbohydrates. These types of carbohydrate are poorly absorbed or digested for some. When these are poorly absorbed, increased water may be drawn into the gut, which results in diarrhoea for some people. For others, the carbohydrates travel to the large intestine where they are fermented by bacteria, which then produces gas. This gas can lead to additional symptoms of IBS including bloating, constipation, flatulence, pain and nausea.

Many legumes are high FODMAP, with the galacto-oligosaccharide (GOS) found in legumes being one of the FODMAPs that people even without IBS don’t tolerate well.

The key reason to include legumes is fibre. When starting a low FODMAP diet, fibre intake is one of the first things that can start to drop. Legumes are a rich source of prebiotic fibres. These fibres are the ones that provide fuel for the healthy bacteria in your gut, with avoidance showing there may end up being a change in your gut bacteria, and not necessarily for the better!

But how on earth do you include legumes in your diet when following a low FODMAP diet, and still keep your symptoms in check? Especially when the bloating and wind that develops as a result of the legumes fermenting in your gut can be uncomfortable and downright embarrassing.

Check out my tips for including legumes whilst following a low FODMAP diet!

·        Look at how they’ve been prepared. Canned legumes are much better tolerated than dried legumes, due to having a lower FODMAP content. Canned lentils are safe at 1/2 cup, whilst butter beans and chickpeas are low FODMAP at 1/4 cup. Keep in mind that if you choose dried over canned, it is likely the same portion won’t be tolerated if you are sensitive to GOS.

·        Start small: if you know you don’t tolerate legumes well, start small and infrequent and build up over time. Have you ever noticed that people who regularly eat legumes seem to tolerate them better? This is due to the gut getting better at digesting the prebiotic-rich fibres with regular consumption. Maybe try 1-2 tablespoons of one of the options mentioned below and work up from there every few days.

·        Remember that portions add up: whilst having 1/4 cup canned chickpeas is likely to be ok, if other GOS rich foods are added in, you may be more likely to experience symptoms. Instead, bulk out your meal with whole grains that are low in FODMAPs, for example brown rice, quinoa or millet.

So now you know what to look out for, how can you still include legumes as a regular part of your diet, even when sticking to low FODMAP options?

1    Canned legumes are one of the easiest ways to incorporate legumes into your diet, as they’ve already been cooked! Used in the quantities above, they’re so versatile and will work added straight into a salad or add texture to a sauce or casserole if cooking. Why not try adding into spaghetti sauce, or including in a spinach salad with some feta and orange slices. Just remember to drain and rinse canned legumes prior to use.

-     Sprouted mung beans: find these in the fridge  in the vegetable section in your local shops. The perfect addition to up the nutrient density of your salads, and mung beans are low FODMAP at 2/3 cup! Try incorporating these into your chicken and quinoa salad for some crunch, or top your favourite baked vegetable dish.

-    Dried red and green lentils: dried lentils require a little more prep, and will take some time to cook prior to being ready to eat. Keep these to 1/4 cup serve of cooked lentils – they’re a fabulous addition to curries and soups! Try mixing coconut milk, zucchini and chicken along with red lentils to make a delicious creamy curry and serve with brown rice.

So however you incorporate legumes, remember you can still enjoy them as part of a balanced low FODMAP diet. Take a look at our recipe for low FODMAP Lentil Nut Burgers.

Chloe is a Sydney based dietitian who works closely with individuals and companies, develops recipes and writes about nutrition to help individuals and the wider population to optimise their health through elite nutrition. Chloe particularly specialises in the areas of food intolerance, sports nutrition and nutrition for arthritis and autoimmune conditions.
She developed and runs the online course The FODMAP Challenge, and provides individual nutrition services for both face to face and online consultations, and co-owns nutrition consultancy business, Health & Performance Collective

Sunday, July 29, 2018

What’s all the hype about seitan?

With flexitarian and vegan diets booming in 2018, there’s no shortage of plant-based proteins on offer, but have you heard of seitan? Read on to discover more about this devilish-sounding plant-based alternative, and decide whether you should give it a go…

Seitain: what actually is it?
Seitan (pronounced ‘say-tan’), is a product made of the protein found in breads and cereals, called gluten. It’s produced by washing a wheat flour dough with water until the starch is removed, leaving only the elastic, meaty-textured gluten, which has led to other names like wheat meat, wheat protein or wheat gluten. Although it’s been gaining more attention recently, seitan has actually been around for centuries, dating back as early as the 6th Century in Asian countries like China. It’s been adopted as a plant-based form of protein for people who follow meat-free diets, and is similar to tofu and tempeh – although these soy-based proteins lack the meat-like texture that seitan has.

Per 100g serving
Firm Tofu
Kilojoule (kJ)
Protein (G)
FAt (g)
Carbohydrate (g)
Fibre (g)

Sodium (mg)

Jenny Sugar (2011), Meat Alternatives Explained: Tofu, Tempeh, and Seitan.

What are the pros?
·        High in protein, low in kilojoules
·        Plant-based source of protein which can mimic the taste of meat
·        Soy-free meat substitute for those with soy allergies

What are the cons?
·        Not suitable for those with gluten-sensitivities or coeliac disease
·        Doesn’t absorb much flavour
·        High amounts of sodium (salt) in the packaged product
·        Seitan is hard to source unlike other vegetarian protein alternatives meaning you may have to venture to a specialty vegetarian “butcher”

Where does it fit in the Australian Dietary Guidelines?
Seitan is protein-rich, so falls into the ‘meat and alternatives’ group of the Australian Dietary Guidelines. The guidelines suggest including between 1 – 3 serves of this food group per day, where 1 serve is equal to 2 large eggs, 1 cup cooked or canned legumes/beans, palm sized lean beef, one small can of fish or about 1/3 cup of seitan.

But if it’s a plant-based meat alternative you’re after, seitan just doesn’t stack up when compared with grains and legumes. They may not be the first foods that comes to mind for protein, but GLNC’s 2017 bread audit found 1 in 5 wholemeal sliced breads were a ‘good source’ of protein (at least 10g per serve), and legumes are known for being one of the most cost-effective protein choices available. And while seitan packs a punch when it comes to protein, it lacks other goodies like vitamins and minerals, fibre, and phytonutrients that are found naturally in grains and legumes. On top of that, legumes double as a serve of vegetables, so it’s a win-win!

Back to Seitan… What’s the bottom line?
If you have a committed meat eater in your family, seitan may be the way to convince them to eat more plant-based foods with a taste, texture and appearance similar to animal based protein. But nutritionally boasting little other than protein, seitan falls behind other meat-free choices, so choosing options like tofu, tempeh, legumes and whole grains may be a better bet to boost your health. After some recipe inspiration? Take a look at our recipe page, featuring plenty of grain and legume options!

Terri Maister is a student Dietitian and began her final year of study at GLNC on a placement program in January 2018. She has experience in multiple areas of Dietetics including clinical paediatrics, food service management and community public health. Terri is determined to explore the diverse role of a Dietitian and help make important changes in the population and is due to graduate with a Bachelor of Nutrition and Dietetics (Honours) in November 2018.

Connect with Terri through:
Instagram: @Terri Maister
Twitter: @TerriMaister
LinkedIn: Terri Maister

1. NHMRC. Australian Dietary Guidelines. 2013.
2. Go Grains Health & Nutrition. The Grains and Legumes Health Report. Go Grains Health & Nutrition Ltd. 2010.
3. NHMRC. Eat for Health Serve Sizes. 2015
4. Dr Axe – Food is Medicine. Is Seitan Healthy? The Pro’s, Cons + Alternatives. 2017
5. Pop Sugar. Meat Alternatives Explained: Tofu, Tempeh, and Seitan. Jenny Sugar. 2011.

Sunday, July 22, 2018

3 reasons you should be making homemade soup this winter

As the weather starts to cool down, there are few things more nourishing than warming up with delicious comfort food, like a big bowl of homemade soup. Not only is soup a quick, easy and healthy dinner solution, it's easily reheated for a wholesome lunch the next day - often tasting even better! Or simply freeze your leftovers for up to a few months - it’s the ultimate cheap and nutritious frozen meal.

Here are 3 reasons why you should make soup part of your weekly routine this winter:

1. Homemade soup can be a balanced ‘one-pot’ meal

Gone are the days of having a one or two veg soup as an entrĂ©e to the main course. These days, exciting and balanced soup recipes are the main course, one that will ensure you're getting a variety of food groups and nutrients in one meal! Don’t be afraid to experiment with different whole grains and legumes to mix things up – quinoa, barley, rice, beans, chickpeas, lentils and peas – these all add important nutrients to your soup, add variety and help keep you full. Several studies also show that eating soup is associated with higher diet quality and lower body weight (1).

2. Soup is cheap, quick and easy to make

Most soup recipes make 4-6 serves, and are easily stored in the fridge or freezer. Additionally, when you compare the cost of ingredients against the number of meals you get out of the pot, soup works out to be an extremely economical option! Most soups are also low on prep and cooking time – just chop up your veggies, throw in a mix of herbs, spices, grains, legumes or lean meats, then leave to simmer.

3. Soup is the ultimate staple for meal-prepping

Homemade soup is an obvious choice when meal-prepping for the week, due to its versatility with storage and reheating. You’ll be the envy of your co-workers when you have a chicken, barley and vegetable soup to pop in the microwave at lunchtime. Coming home from a long day in the office, with hungry kids in tow, there’s nothing better than having a freezer full of rich tomato and cannellini bean soup to throw on the stove and reheat. You know you’re consuming a healthy, nutritious and warming meal in the time it takes to come to the boil – just toast a few slices of wholemeal or whole grain bread and you’re set.

Get creative, experiment, and mix and match to get the most out of your soup this winter!

Quick tips on making your soup super healthy:

-        Choose low salt/sodium stock
-        Experiment with plant-based sources of protein such as tofu, beans, eggs or lentils
-        Skip the cream – thicken with milk, yoghurt, sweet potato, pureed white beans or beaten eggs 
-      Add flavour with fresh herbs and spices
-        Cook with lean meats such as chicken, turkey, fish or seafood

Take a look at our recipe collection here for more great soup inspiration!

(1) Zhu Y and Hollis JH, Soup consumption is associated with a lower dietary energy density and a better diet quality in US adults. Br J Nutr. 2014 Apr 28;111(8):1474-80

Monday, May 21, 2018

Do it like the Danes this Whole Grain Week!

In Australia, Nordic nations are best known for their chilly climate, flat-pack furniture, and addictive TV crime shows, but why not their whole grain habits? This Whole Grain Week, we’re encouraging you to eat like the Danish – who enjoy more than three times the amount of whole grain than most Aussies!

Whole Grain Week (18-24 June) is all about spreading the word on how important whole grain foods are in our diet, and inspiring Australians to make simple swaps for big health benefits.

Whole grain foods like brown rice, pasta, oats, and wholemeal bread are packed with nutrition, and there’s good evidence that people who eat them regularly are less likely to develop heart disease, type 2 diabetes, even bowel cancer.

But unfortunately few Australians eat enough; 59% of us choose refined grains, eating an average of just 21g whole grain per day – less than half the recommended 48g Daily Target Intake.

The ‘New Nordic Diet,’ is one of the latest diets where whole grain foods feature heavily - think rye bread, oats, and barley, so it will come as no surprise that Danes devour an average of 63 grams of whole grain each day – trebling the Aussie effort!

Most of us know whole grain foods are full of fibre, but Accredited Practising Dietitians Alex Parker and Anna Debenham from The Biting Truth say there’s actually much more to it. “Whole grains are little nutrition powerhouses, delivering more than 26 nutrients, like vitamins, minerals, fibre, even antioxidants.”

So why don’t we eat more whole grain? For many Australians, it comes down to the extra time it may take to cook whole grains, as well as simply being in the habit of choosing refined grains like white bread, rice, and pasta. So how can you enjoy the health benefits of eating more, without compromising on taste or time? Themis Chryssidis and Callum Hann, from Sprout Cooking School say a bit of prior planning is key:

“Many whole grain varieties actually only take an average of just 4 minutes longer to cook than white varieties. But you can cut cooking time further by soaking grains like freekeh or brown rice overnight, or for a few hours in advance. You could also cook a big batch of whole grains on a free afternoon and freeze individual portions in snap-lock bags or containers – ready to throw in your lunch bag or defrost for dinner!” says Themis, an Accredited Practising Dietitian.

The duo also suggest checking out the expanding grains section in the supermarket, which is bursting with convenient microwaveable products and interesting new varieties – think quinoa/rice mixes, wild rice and every colour rice you can imagine - red, black, purple, barley, teff, amaranth, buckwheat and many more.

So why not try a few simple swaps this Whole Grain Week to boost your health, without compromising on taste or time. Check out our handy ready reckoner to see how you can reach your 48g every day!

The Biting Truth’s top three whole grain nutrition benefits!

1. Eating whole grains protects our health in the long-term, against things like cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, and bowel cancer. 

2. Choosing whole grain foods may help with weight maintenance: people who eat whole grains regularly are likely to have a healthy weight and waist circumference.

3. They’re great for our gut: the fibre in whole grains ‘feeds’ our good gut bacteria, which may improve our health in other ways – controlling our appetite, reducing inflammation, and boosting immunity. 

Try these delicious recipes to help you hit your whole grain target!

These delicious Baked Oats are a breakfast the whole family will love.
Enjoy a classic for lunch with an Egg & Lettuce Sandwich on wholemeal bread.
Make a batch of these Corn & Zucchini Muffins to tide you over for morning or afternoon tea!
For dinner, this Freekeh, Lentil & Bean Salad makes a great stand-alone or side dish with fish.

For more information on Whole Grain Week or to find out how you can help spread the whole grain message, visit our website here.

Tuesday, March 13, 2018

What’s all the fuss about the New Nordic Diet?

Almost every week we see a new diet being touted as the next big thing. Few diets come out on top, but the New Nordic Diet (New Nordic Diet) is up there along with its close cousin, the Mediterranean diet. We’ve taken a closer look at just why it’s meant to be so good for us…

Firstly, where does the New Nordic Diet come from?

The New Nordic Diet shares its roots with the traditional Nordic way of eating and was created in 2004 as a collaboration between the Nordic Council for Ministers and the acclaimed Copenhagen restaurant NOMA, to celebrate the simplicity of the Nordic style of eating. It’s based around seasonal, regional food with a particular focus on health, sustainability and flavour and ties in with several key food trends for 2018 and beyond, including the recent focus on plant-based foods.

So what do I eat on the New Nordic Diet?

The New Nordic Diet is often described as a ‘cooler temperature’ take on the Mediterranean diet, which is widely considered to be the best diet for preventing heart disease. It features plenty of fruit and vegetables - think berries, cabbage, root vegetables and beans, as well as peas and lentils, potatoes, herbs, mushrooms, nuts and whole grains like barley, oats and rye. Lean meat and fish is eaten occasionally with a focus on quality - all these elements are similar to the Mediterranean diet, with one key difference; followers of the New Nordic Diet use canola oil instead of the traditionally Mediterranean olive oil.

Why is it good for me?

The core elements of the New Nordic Diet help to promote good overall health, alongside providing protection against being overweight, suffering from obesity and a range of other diet related diseases.
Research on the New Nordic Diet and weight management shows that people who closely followed the New Nordic Diet lost more weight1 and also gained less post-study2, compared to those following an average diet - which included refined grains, meat, dairy, confectionary and smaller amounts of low fibre fruit and veggies.

Additionally, another study showed that the New Nordic Diet can improve cardiovascular risk factors including blood lipids, insulin and blood pressure3.

Whilst data on the New Nordic Diet is limited so far, research is showing that sticking to a mostly plant-based diet and eating quality carbohydrates and whole grains, can help protect our overall health. Here’s how to eat New Nordic style for the day…
  • Start your day with a bowl of oats and berries
  • Switch your lunchtime sandwich bread to a wholemeal rye version
  • Choose whole grain crispbreads and pea hummus for an afternoon snack
  • Mix up your grains and try cooked barley with salmon for dinner instead of rice
Interested in adding more whole grains and legumes to your day? Visit our recipe section for delicious foodie inspiration.

  1. Poulsen SK., Due A., Jordy AB., et al. (2014). Health effect of the New Nordic Diet in adults with increased waist circumference: a 6-mo randomised controlled trial. Am J Clin Nutr. 99:1, 35-45. Accessed from: 
  2. Poulson SK., C rone C., Astrup A., Larsen TM. (2015). Long-term adherence to the New Nordic Diet and the effects on body weight, anthropometry and blood pressure: a 12-month follow-up study. Eur J Nutr. 54:1. 67-76. Accessed from:
  3. Adamsson V., Reumark A., Fredriksson I-B. et al. (2010). Effects of a healthy Nordic diet on cardiovascular risk factors in hypercholesterolaemic subjects: a randomised controlled trial (NORDIET). J Intern Med. 269 150-9. Accessed from:

Tuesday, January 30, 2018

Australia Pacific Conference on Clinical Nutrition Wrap-Up

In late November last year the team from GLNC headed to Adelaide for the 10th Asia Pacific Conference on Clinical Nutrition (APCCN). With the theme ‘Nutrition Solutions for a Changing World,’ APCCN brought together nutrition scientists from across the globe to share the latest in nutrition research. Read on for a wrap-up of the key themes from APCCN:
  • The future of food: how can we contribute to a more sustainable food system?
Author and science communicator Julian Cribb opened the first Plenary Session with a sobering reminder of the risks involved with the modern day food system. Our population is growing at record rates, yet over-consumption and current practices are straining both our health, and the environment. Cribb noted over the next few decades, there is a need to grow more food to sustain the growing population, but produced from less land, using less water. But it’s not all bad news: Cribb’s presentation shared the endless opportunities and areas for innovation in sustainable food systems – a shift to a more plant-based diet, cultured meat and the use of food printers, and ‘Agritecture,’ the art of growing more food in urban environments, which can be observed in major cities with sustainably built high-rises covered in greenery.

  • The microbiome: a trend that’s here to stay, but there’s so much more to learn!
Gut health made waves in 2017 for its links with health and possible disease prevention, and a number of research presentations at APCCN focused on how the microbiome can be altered through eating probiotic or prebiotic foods. Associate Professor Melinda Coughlan from Monash University shared interesting research around the potential for resistant starch to protect against Chronic Kidney Disease in mice, by suppressing or reversing inflammation from dietary AGEs, and decreasing changes in gut bacteria. But despite the hype, there was a consensus that nutrition science is still in the early stages of understanding how diet can affect gut health, so stay tuned!
  • Food innovations and new product development: high-amylose wheat
Dr Anthony Bird from CSIRO presented research on a newly developed strain of wheat which is high in amylose and looks set to become a useful functional food ingredient. With ten times the amount of resistant starch than ordinary wheat, the newly developed high-amylose wheat can be milled into flour and used in food products as normal. This means people could benefit from the digestive and chronic disease protection resistant starch offers, without drastically changing or increasing the foods they eat.
  • Whole grain: where we're falling short
GLNC General Manager Dr Sara Grafenauer also presented research findings from GLNC, alongside the University of Wollongong: ‘The whole grain gap: comparing intakes to recommendations.’ The study found that from a nationally representative sample of Australians, only 30% met the 48g Daily Target Intake of whole grains, so are missing out on the known health benefits. Find out more about the whole grain DTI here.